Obesity As A Risk Factor In Cosmetic Abdominoplasty: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis
Ellen F. Niu, B.S.1, Stephanie E. Honig, MD1, Katherine E. Wang, BA, MBE2, Chris Amro, MD1, Harrison D. Davis, BS1, Theodore E. Habarth-Morales, BS, 1LT, USAR, NRAEMT1, Robyn B. Broach, PhD1, John P. Fischer, MD, FACS1.
1Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA, 2Renaissance School of Medicine at Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA.
PURPOSE: The incidence of obesity is on the rise around the globe. Outside the massive weight loss patient population, knowledge of risk factors associated with abdominoplasty is limited. This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses the impact obesity has on cosmetic abdominoplasty outcomes.
METHODS: A systematic review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA. PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and COCHRANE databases were reviewed using syntax “obesity”, “abdominoplasty”, “panniculectomy”, and “body contouring” for articles. Cosmetic was defined as abdominoplasty or panniculectomy outside the context of massive weight loss. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. Studies reporting postoperative outcomes with less than 50% of their population involving massive weight loss patients were included. Postoperative outcomes were assessed by pooled analysis and meta-analysis.
RESULTS: Of 3,088 initial studies, 16 met inclusion criteria. Of which, 9 studies included patient-reported outcomes that were used for pooled and meta-analysis. Six studies utilized national databases and were excluded from our data analysis. Meta-analysis demonstrated obesity was associated with more seromas (OR 1.45, 1.06-1.98, p=0.02), hematomas (OR 2.21, 1.07-4.57, p=0.03), and total surgical site occurrences (OR 1.99, 1.30-3.04, p=0.0016). There was no significant difference in odds of any other complications. Analysis by obesity class revealed no significant increase in odds in seromas or wound dehiscence.
CONCLUSION: This review demonstrates obesity increased the odds of postoperative complications following cosmetic abdominoplasty. However, risk of complications does not continue to increase with higher obesity class. Additional research in cosmetic abdominoplasty is encouraged to further assess the impact of obesity on complications.
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